The reduction of construction time and as a consequence of lowering the cost of the object is achieved primarily by the use of metal run structures. The design of bridges is accompanied by a well-designed work production project (PPR) with all necessary applications, including technological regulations for the assembly and welding of metal run structures.
Bridge type designs are divided into several large groups, depending on their purpose and type. Each group has its own individual characteristics. Development of design documentation for the construction of bridges begins with the receipt of the terms of reference. In it the customer specifies the data on the scheme of construction, capacity and maximum loads. The Institute develops projects for rail, road, combined and pedestrian overhead bridges.
Construction of bridges
According to the types of static circuits (structures) bridges can be:
- Beams. The simplest form, for example, is the design documentation for the construction of pedestrian bridges. The distance between adjacent supports is overlapped by beams, only vertical loads are perceived, horizontal loads are minimal. They can have separate, non-integral, cantilever or temperature-irreversible schemes. Flying systems can be made of metal lattice structures or in the form of beams, with arrangement. The split system has several individual beams, each of which overlaps only one span. In a non-breaking system, one beam can block several spans, for the console system two types of beams are designed – on supports and cantilever overhangs. The temperature-indistinguishable system has two supporting beams joined by a connecting plate. Such a system, depending on the direction of loads, we operate as separate or indistinguishable.
- Farming. According to this scheme, the design of road bridges, railway and even pedestrian. Relatively lightweight designs allow for large spans to be blocked.
- Spacer or arched. The loads can have both vertical and horizontal directions, are used in complex bridge design, have several types of spacer systems. Depending on the specific operating conditions and initial technical data, employees choose the most optimal system, complex design is performed according to the established scheme of work production.
By destination, bridges can be:
- Walking. Such bridges are built to facilitate pedestrians crossing natural or artificial obstacles.
- Railway. This type of bridges is built for railway tracks over obstacles of all kinds – over roads, rivers and more.
- Road bridges and overpasses, interchanges. These bridges are designed for highways – when crossing several thoroughfares or if the path is interrupted by natural obstacles – for example, reservoirs.